印度:转角遇见豹--中国数字科技馆
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印度:转角遇见豹

印度:转角遇见豹(科学60S) 0:00/0:00
最新发布时间: 2016-02-16
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Big Cats and People Live in Close Quarters in India

印度:转角遇见豹


The numbers of large carnivores, especially leopards, are increasing in private lands and lands outside the protected-area systems in India, bringing new challenges for coexistence.

在印度,私有土地和未划入保护区的土地中的大型食肉动物数量,特别是豹的数量在不断上升,为人与野生动物的共存带来了挑战。


撰文/播音 史蒂夫·米尔斯基(Steve Mirsk)

翻译 Meatle

审校 李轩


"In India, as a consequence of stricter protection of wildlife and increased tolerance, numbers of large carnivores are increasing in private lands and lands outside the protected-area systems."Ullas Karanth of the U.S.-based Wildlife Conservation Society and India's Centre for Wildlife Studies.

“在印度,由于对野生动物越发严格的保护措施与对野生动物越来越高的容忍度,私有土地和未划入保护区的土地上的肉食动物数量正在上升。”美国野生动物保护组织与印度野生动物研究中心(U.S.-based Wildlife Conservation Society and India’s Centre for Wildlife Studies)的乌拉斯·卡拉夫(Ullas Karanth)如是说。


"While this is a good thing for conservation it poses serious problems for management because occasionally these interactions turn hostile, between people and carnivores. And this issue is particularly serious with leopards."

“对于动物保护来说,这当然是一件好事,但这也为管理带来了难题,因为偶尔人类与食肉动物的交互会转化为敌对行动。而这个问题在豹身上尤其严重。”


Karanth and his team studied interactions between people and leopards in Karnataka, a state in India's southwest that's home to more than 60 million people. Leopards can be found in 47 percent of the state, in areas outside parks and other sanctuaries. So people and leopards do, every once in a while, run into each other.

卡拉夫与他的队员在卡纳塔克邦研究人类与豹的交互。卡纳塔克邦位于印度的西南部,居住着6千万人。在该邦47%的地区,包括保护区以外与其他场所,都能找到豹的身影。因此人们与豹的相遇在所难免。


To gauge the frequency of such interactions, the researchers scoured media reports during a 14-month period from 2013 to 2014. The total tally was 245 separate incidents. Most were attacks on livestock or simple sightings of the leopards by people. But leopards did attack people 32 times, causing three deaths. Thirty-four leopards died in the study period, mostly from poaching and being hit by vehicles. Capturing and relocating the animals did not seem to be an effective way to cut down on animal-human contacts. The study is in the journal PLoS ONE. [Vidya Athreya et al, Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India]

为了计量这种相互作用的频率,研究人员浏览了2013-2014年间14个月的媒体报道,其中包含了245次独立的事件。大多为豹袭击牲畜或是被人类目击的报道。然而,在32个事件中,豹袭击了人类,并造成3人死亡。在这段时间中,有34头豹死亡,主要由于非法捕猎和交通事故。捕捉和转移这些动物并不能有效减少人类与它们的交互。该项研究发表在《公共科学图书馆期刊》上。


So how can the large carnivores and people better coexist? The researchers think that an obvious but important step is to get a lot more data on just where leopards are most likely to be found in populated areas, so people can avoid the cats. And that farmers should be quickly and fairly compensated for any livestock losses. Which seems to be a better alternative than trying to hunt down and kill or move the offending animal.

如何能够做到大型肉食性动物与人类共存?研究人员认为一个明显而且重要的步骤是采集大量数据,确定豹在人口稠密地区的最有可能出没的地点,从而让人们避开豹。同时应该使农民能便捷且公平地获得牲畜损失的赔偿。比起将之抓获,从而杀死或转移,这种方法貌似是一种更好的代替方案。


原文链接:http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/big-cats-and-people-live-in-close-quarters-in-india/


(题图来源:www.telegraph.co.uk)


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